La victime de la tour eiffel

It to be at thé 1889 exposants Universelle, the date that marked thé 100th anniversary de the français Revolution, that a an excellent competition was released in the journaux Officiel.

Vous lisez ce: La victime de la tour eiffel

The first digging occupational started conditions météorologiques the 26th January 1887. Nous the 31st march 1889, the Tower had been finished in prendre note time – 2 years, 2 months et 5 days – and was established ont a veritable technological feat.


Sommaire

ns première version bien différente La confinements Durée de construction enregistrer Le journalistes Émile Goudeau visitant le chantier au début du 1889 en décrit ainsi le spectacle. les planches de Monsieur Eiffel Extrait du la "Protestation contraire la Tour aux M. Eiffel", 1887

Key figures

Design18,038 metallic parts
 5,300 workshop designs
 50 engineers and designers
Construction150 employees in the Levallois-Perret factory
 Between 150 and 300 workers on the confinements site
 2,500,000 rivets
 7,300 tonnes du iron
 60 tonnes de paint
 5 lifts
Duration2 years, 2 months and 5 days of construction

 

 

The incarcération schedule

Works kick-off26th January 1887
Start du the pillars" mounting1st July 1887
First floor achievement1st April 1888
Second floor achievement14th respectable 1888
Top et assembly achievement31st march 1889

The design of the Eiffel Tower

The destinées to develop a tower 300 metres high to be conceived ont part de preparations parce que le the World"s Fair de 1889.

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Bolting the découper of two crossbowmen.(c): collection Tour Eiffel

The wager was venir "study thé possibility du erecting année iron tower nous the Champ-de-Mars through a square base, 125 metres across and 300 metres tall". Selected from amongst 107 projects, it was the of gustave Eiffel, an entrepreneur, Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier, both engineers, et Stephen Sauvestre, année architect, the was accepted.

Emile Nouguier and Maurice Koechlin, the two chief engineers in Eiffel"s company, had the idea à la a very tall tower in june 1884. Ce was to be designed like a large pylon with 4 columns du lattice work-related girders, separated at the base and coming ensemble at thé top, et joined to each other de more steel girders at consistent intervals.

The tower task was a bold expansion of this rule up to a height ns 300 metres - equivalent to thé symbolic personnage of 1000 feet. On September 18 1884 Eiffel registered a patent "for a nouveau configuration enabling the confinements of metal supports and pylons peut être of exceeding a height de 300 metres".

In order venir make auto project more acceptable to auditeur opinion, Nouguier et Koechlin commissioned thé architect Stephen Sauvestre to work nous the project"s appearance.


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Sauvestre suggest stonework pedestals à dress auto legs, monumental arches to link thé columns and the first level, super glass-walled halls on each level, a bulb-shaped design for thé top and various divers ornamental features to decorate auto whole ns the structure. In auto end thé project was simplified, but certain aspects such as the large toit at the établissement were retained, i beg your pardon in part give it its an extremely characteristic appearance.

The curvature of the uprights is mathematically determined à offer the most efficient wind resistance possible. Ont Eiffel himself explains: "All thé cutting renforcer of auto wind surmonter into auto interior of the top edge uprights. Lines attracted tangential to each upright through the point of every tangent at thé same height, will always intersect at a seconde point, i beg your pardon is precisely the mission through which surmonter the flow resultant native the action of thé wind nous that part du the tower soutien situated above the two points in question. Avant coming ensemble at auto high pinnacle, thé uprights appear à burst out de the ground, et in a way venir be shaped by the mouvement of thé wind".


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The assembly ns the supports began nous July 1, 1887 and was completed twenty-two months later.

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All auto elements were ready in Eiffel’s factory located at Levallois-Perret conditions météorologiques the outskirts du Paris. Each of the 18,000 pieces used to construct the Tower were specifically designed and calculated, traced the end to an accuracy ns a tenth du a millimetre and then put ensemble forming new pieces roughly five metres each. A team du constructors, who had actually worked nous the great metal viaduct projects, to be responsible parce que le the 150 venir 300 workers conditions météorologiques site assembling this giant erector set.


The rivet workers

All auto metal pieces ns the tower are organized together par rivets, a well-refined method of construction at the time thé Tower to be constructed. tons the pieces were assembled in auto factory using bolts, later venir be changed one de one through thermally assembled rivets, i m sorry contracted during cooling hence ensuring a an extremely tight fit. A team ns four men to be needed parce que le each rivet assembled: une to heat it up, un autre to hold ce in place, a third venir shape thé head and a fourth venir beat cette with a sledgehammer. Seul a third du the 2,500,000 rivets supplied in the restrictions of thé Tower were placed directly nous site.

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The uprights rest nous concrete foundations installed a couple of metres listed below ground-level nous top ns a layer de compacted gravel. Each edge edge rests conditions météorologiques its own soutien block, using to it a pressure of 3 to 4 kilograms tout de suite square centimetre, and each bloquer is join to auto others by walls.

On the seine side de the construction, auto builders offered watertight metal caissons et injected compressed air, haricot de soja that they were able à work below auto level ns the water.

 





The tower was assembled using wooden scaffolding and small heavy steam cranes placed onto thé tower itself.

The assembly of the first level to be achieved par the use du twelve temporary wooden scaffolds, 30 metres high, et four bigger scaffolds du 40 metres each.

"Sand boxes" and hydraulic jacks - replaced after use passant par permanent wedges - allowed the metal girders à be positioned to année accuracy of one millimetre.

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On December 7, 1887, the joining du the diriger girders up to the tons level was completed. The pieces to be hauled up par steam cranes, which us climbed up the Tower oui they went follow me using auto runners to be used à la the Tower"s lifts.