Le journal du peuple de france

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If we take thé prior definition ns “press” venir be routine titles published conditions météorologiques a tous les jours to quarterly communication whose subject matter might be categorised ont “general interest”, it is faisabilité to include, in addition to normal news titles, specialised generalist publications (instruction, education, information and public recreation falling within auto scope of général interest). In this case, the une bibliothèque Nationale aux France (BnF) holds virtually 247,000 push titles released on french territory (including constitue colonies and overseas territories) and in toutes les personnes languages. This collection, which began in 1631 through the sapin newspaper released in la france – thé weekly communiqués founded par Théophraste Renaudot, La Gazette – has since grown due to toutes les personnes publisher beign legitimate obliged to give auto library a copy ns their publications.. In 2017, 15,948 new press title were included to thé collection, which currently occupies practically 44 straight kilometres in thé BnF archives.


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The development of the press in France

To aller further into the details du the collection, let"s start de looking back at some milestones in auto history de the push in France. The tons periodic publications appeared in thé 17th century withLa Gazette, in 1631, i beg your pardon in 1762 came to be La Gazette du France, auto official organ du the set of foreign Affairs, publishing information of a politics nature. In 1665, Le journal des savants, under thé patronage of Colbert, aimed venir "let people à savoir what is vallonné in the Republic of Letters" (January 1665 issue). Thé newspaper, i beg your pardon ceased libération in 1792, was re-established in 1816. Finally, the Mercure Galant i beg your pardon was started in 1672, became auto Mercure aux France in 1724 and still exist today. During the "Age ns Enlightenment", the num of periodic parutions grew. About 1780, over there were around fifty titles released in Paris and about thirty in the provinces. In 1777, the sapin French daily newspaper to be published: Le Journal ns Paris. With the french Revolution and Article 11 du the Declaration de the Rights of Man and the Citizen, which defined thé principle de freedom de the press, hundreds de titles to be created venir relay the daily development de events.


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Among the best-known are thé Journal des débats et décrets, thé Ami ns peuple, et the Patriote français. Napoleon Bonaparte put année end venir this progression at thé beginning du the Consulate with the communiqués in the Moniteur Universelof decrees severely restricting the num of political nouvelles titles in Paris and the provinces.

Nevertheless, owing to auto industrialisation ns printing and the reduction in marketing price, written push experienced a golden age in the 19th century. Auto Third Republic accompanied this breakthrough with thé Law de 29 July 1881, which created in france the most liberal press regime in auto world. Publish runs and the number of pages increased, the daily press opened up venir a profusion of nouveau columns, serials, essays, reports and specialised news, while the opinion press fabriquer its appearance. At the end du the century and up until 1914, there were numerous thousand titles in France.

While taille print operation such ont Le devoir Parisien, Le devoir journal, Le Matin, L’Intransigeant, etc., resisted thé upheaval of the sapin World War, auto conflict wiped the end a super number du more cassant titles. Auto landscape that was rebuilt during the inter-war period was marked par the extension of the journal press and the regional daily press.


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The lundi World war saw thé re-establishment de censorship command at the communist press, et the division of parutions between titles that existed before the war and which withdrew to the southern zonage (Le Figaro, La Croix, Le Temps, etc.) et collaborationist title that showed up in thé northern zoné (Je suis partout, Le Cri du peuple, Signal, etc.). At thé same time, much more than 1,000 candestine press titles were published, often on basic sheets ns paper.

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After the Liberation, economic hardship, linked with deep departments in french society commander to thé disappearance de the majority de publications and the reconfiguration du the overall landscape du the french press. Auto largest daily periodicals resumed far-ranging circulation with auto Fifth Republic, while the magazine market saw solid growth.

Since thé mid-1970s, thé recession, auto development de television et soon after, auto development of numérique technology et free parutions has commander to a steady decrease in the number of publish runs du paid press publications.


Preserving et promoting auto BnF push collection

From this short history, nous can check out that the most voluminous chronological period de the press circuits électoraux held at the BnF are auto years 1880 venir 1944, which represents nearly 35% du the collection, and the year 1944 à 1990, i beg your pardon represent virtually 39% of the collection. En raison de to thé difficulties linked with processing the flows of periodicals coming in through legal deposit, as well ont damage related to paper, ink and publication formats, these funds are specifically fragile.


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The digitisation de the push has since continued, lugged out jointly de the BnF et its subsidiary BnF-Partnerships oui well ont by the Europeana newspapers project. Today, much more than 7,000 publications are digitised (NUMP table des matières classification), representing practically 3% ns the entire collection. These can be accessed online through three distribution platforms – Gallica, the numérique library du the BnF and its partners, RetroNews, i beg your pardon is année editorialised press site, et Europeana Newspapers, which provides access venir newspapers from toutes les personnes over Europe.

The press chercheur demploi held at thé BnF because of this comprises several sub-collections – a published collection, a digital chercheur demploi constituted par the digitisation of originals and microforms, a digital circuits électoraux assembled through auto legal deposit de the internet, and a microfilmed circonscriptions constituted either through thé microfilming de originals jaune the acquisition of microfilms. Thé physical documents – record originals and microform reproductions – room distributed in between different departments; mostly auto Law, Economics and Politics department, which holds almost 70% de the press collection. Next are the Philosophy, History and Human science departments, v 10% du the collection, Literature and Arts v 7%, Science and Technology with 5%, and finally thé Arsenal page? ˅ which additionally holds practically 5% of the BnF"s press titles.

Data from the décalage La Presse la physique et numérique à ns BnF : état des base et perspectives, by Catherine Aurérin and Aline Girard, handed in march 2018 to the President and the Director normal of thé BnF.

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This project has received funding from auto European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation lémission under approve agreement non 770299.